Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an imbalance in insulin production or the body’s inability to use insulin effectively. It is characterized by high levels of glucose in the bloodstream and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated. Long-term complications of diabetes include cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, nerve damage, and eye damage. People with diabetes are also at an increased risk of developing infections, bone and joint problems, and skin problems. Diabetes can even lead to death if it is not managed properly. Control of blood sugar is the key to preventing or delaying complications of diabetes. Get to know more about complications of diabetes & how to prevent them by Dr. Abhishek Karmalkar who is one of the finest Diabetologist in Pimpri chinchwad.
Some Common Complications of Diabetes:
- Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease is a major complication of diabetes, as it is a leading cause of death among diabetic patients. The risk of cardiovascular disease is increased in those with diabetes due to a combination of factors, such as the presence of elevated levels of glucose in the blood, long-term damage to the blood vessels, and a higher risk of high blood pressure.
Over time, elevated levels of glucose can cause damage to the walls of the small blood vessels, leading to the narrowing and hardening of the arteries. This, in turn, increases the risk of high blood pressure, as well as clots, atherosclerosis, and other forms of damage to the vessels. In addition, diabetes can increase the risk of stroke, which occurs when a clot blocks a blood vessel, resulting in a sudden decrease in the supply of oxygenated blood to the brain.
- Kidney Disease
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of kidney disease, also known as diabetic nephropathy. It is caused when high levels of glucose in the blood damage the small blood vessels in the kidneys, causing them to lose their filtering ability. Symptoms of diabetic nephropathy include high levels of protein in the urine, swelling in the face, hands, and feet, and increased blood pressure. Treatment typically involves controlling glucose levels with medications, dietary changes, and exercise, as well as controlling blood pressure with medications. In some cases, kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.
- Eye Damage
Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that can occur in people with diabetes, and it is a leading cause of blindness. It occurs when high blood sugar levels cause damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. As the condition progresses, the vessels may leak blood and fluid into the retina, which can lead to swelling and vision loss. Other symptoms include blurred vision, dark spots, and floaters. Treatment options may include laser therapy, injections, or surgery. It is important for people with diabetes to have regular eye exams to monitor for any changes or signs of diabetic retinopathy.
- Foot Damage
Diabetic foot complications are serious and can often lead to the need for amputation. Diabetics are more prone to developing foot problems due to the damage caused by high blood sugar levels. Poor circulation, nerve damage, and weakened immune systems are all associated with diabetes and can make a person more vulnerable to foot damage.
Common foot complications associated with diabetes include:
- Ulcers– Diabetics are more prone to developing foot ulcers due to poor circulation and decreased sensation in the feet.
- Infections– Bacterial and fungal infections are common in diabetics due to weakened immune systems.
- Charcot Foot– Charcot Foot is a condition in which the bones and joints in the feet become unstable and deformed.
- Neuropathy– Neuropathy is a condition in which the nerves become damaged, resulting in loss of sensation and a lack of coordination.
- Amputation– Severe foot damage can lead to the need for amputation.
How to Prevent Complications
- Monitor your blood sugar levels regularly.
- Follow a healthy diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in protein and healthy fats.
- Exercise regularly to help maintain normal blood sugar levels.
- Take your medications as prescribed and follow up with your doctor regularly.
- Quit smoking and avoid other unhealthy habits.
- Keep your feet clean and inspect them daily for cuts, blisters, or other signs of infection.
- Control your blood pressure and cholesterol.
- Attend regular eye exams to monitor the health of your eyes and vision.
- Get regular dental checkups to monitor the health of your teeth and gums.
- Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.
Dr. Abhishek Karmalkar is a consultant Diabetologist in Pimpri Chinchwad and Endocrinologist in Pimpri Chinchwad at HealthBox Clinic. He is experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and its complications. He provides comprehensive care for diabetes management, including lifestyle modifications, medication management, insulin therapy, nutrition and exercise counseling and follow-up visits. He also specializes in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders and has expertise in the use of newer therapies for diabetes, such as incretin therapy and newer classes of diabetes drugs. He is highly regarded for his expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and its complications.